The first chapter of the bibliography contains 234 pages with over 2340 papers on the regional geology of Indonesia and adjacent SE Asia - Pacific, as well as general papers that do not fit in any of the regions or specialist categories listed separately. It is subdivided in five chapters:

  1. I.1. Indonesia Regional Geology
  2. I.2. SE Asia Tectonics, Paleobiogeography
  3. I.3. Volcanism, Volcanic rocks geochemistry
  4. I.4. Modern environments, Oceanography
  5. I.5. Carbonates, Coral Reefs

Download pdf - Chapter I. REGIONAL GEOLOGY (3.1 MB)

I.1. Indonesia Regional Geology

This chapter includes the references of textbooks and papers on the tectonics and regional geology of Indonesia.

The Indonesian archipelago is an extremely complex collection of continental blocks, active and extinct volcanic arcs, old and young ocean basins and subduction complexes (commonly with ophiolites), marking the sutures where former oceans were consumed. It is now at the convergence of three major tectonic plates: Eurasia, Pacific and Australia. The island of Sulawesi contains elements of all three plates.

Tectnostratigraphic Provinces
A pre-plate tectonics depiction of 'tectonostratigraphic provinces' in Indonesia, fairly accurately grouping areas with similar tectonic histories, mainly based on similarities/ differences in Permian- Eocene stratigraphic successions (Umbgrove, 1938)

Western Indonesia ('Sundaland') is a complex of continental blocks that amalgamated in Late Paleozoic- Early Mesozoic time. Eastern Indonesia contains a number of small continental microplates derived from the Australia- New Guinea Gondwanan margin, now separated by young age oceanic marginal basins and volcanic arc systems.

Many parts of Indonesia's tectonic history remain poorly understood. Numerous reconstructions have been proposed in the last 40 years since the acceptance of plate tectonics theory. Most agree on the broad relative motions of the three major plates, but they vary in many other details. Places like Timor, Seram, W Papua Birds Head, etc. continue to generate debate. Umbgrove (1938) lamented that 'in the last decades at least one or two new hypotheses have been suggested every year to explain the structure of the East Indian Archipelago'. Now, more than 70 years later, new models continue to be proposed and debated. Much progress has been made, but we are still not at the 'final answer'.

Suggested Reading:

Rutten 1927 (in Dutch; remarkable level of understanding for 1927 of much of Indonesian geology) Van Bemmelen (1949), Hamilton (1979), Hutchison (1989), Darman & Sidi (1999)

Tectonics and reconstructions

Katili (many 1970's papers), Pigram & Panggabean (1984), Struckmeyer et al. (1993), Lee & Lawver (1995), Packham (1996), Simandjuntak & Barber (1996), Hall (1996, 1998, 2002 and others), Longley (1997), Villeneuve et al. (1998, 2001, 2010), Charlton (2000), Milsom (2000, 2001), Pubellier et al. (2005), Harris (2006), Hall, Clements and Smyth (2009), Satyana (2009), Spakman & Hall (2010)

I.2. SE Asia Tectonics, Paleobiogeography

This chapter contains a large (>500 titles), mixed collection of papers on regional SE Asia tectonics, as well as papers on the tectonics and geology of parts of mainland SE Asia that are relevant to the understanding of parts of Indonesia (Thailand, S China, Myanmar, some Vietnam, etc.).

Numerous papers on Paleozoic- Mesozoic faunas and floras are also included, especially those that help identify faunal and floral provinces indicative of paleoclimate and relative positions of plates through time. Paleobiogeographic patterns and stratigraphic successions are key tools underpinning plate reconstructions of SE Asia, especially in the pre-Cenozoic.

The main patterns of the geologic evolution of SE Asia are reasonably well understood, but details and exact timing of events are still debated. SE Asia is a complex collage of continental blocks, all once part of the Gondwana supercontinent, separated from the New Guinea- Australia- India margin during multiple episodes of Devonian- Jurassic rifting (S China, Indochina, Sibumasu, W Burma, etc.). After Northward drift from the S Hemisphere to equatorial latitudes (recorded by changes in flora and fauna from colder to warmer climates), the various Gondwanan-origin blocks amalgamated with mainland Eurasia during multiple Late Paleozoic- Eocene episodes of collision.

Multiple suture zones, many with ophiolites, represent the closing of a succession of ocean basins (Paleo-Tethys, Meso-Tethys, Neo-Tethys/ Indian Ocean) by subduction along the S Eurasia margin. These are accompanied by volcanic-plutonic arc systems and associated subduction complexes.

Oceanic marginal basins formed by slab rollback after various collisions, some of which are already consumed, some of the Eocene and younger ones still remain (Andaman Sea, South China Sea, Sulu Sea, Celebes Sea, Banda Seas). Probably related with these are widespread Tertiary basins, mainly initiating in the Late Eocene-Oligocene. Several large strike slip fault zones, many still active today, further add to the complexity of the region.

Suggested Reading:
Tectonics and terrane reconstructions

Stauffer (1974-1986), Ridd (1980), Metcalfe (1988, 1996, 2009 and others), Sengor et al. (1988, 2009), Hutchison (1994), Hall (1997, 1998, 2002, 2009 and others), Pubellier et al. (2003, 2005, etc.) and others.

I.3. Volcanism, Volcanic rocks geochemistry

Krakatau after 1883 eruption (Verbeek 1885)
Krakatau after 1883 eruption (Verbeek 1885).

This chapter contains mainly papers on regional volcanism; many additional papers that are specific to one area will be under the chapter for that area. Most of the papers on modern volcanoes and descriptions of historic activity are not included, unless they contain data or observations that are relevant to interpretation of the regional geology.

With its 128 active and many additional extinct volcanoes, Indonesia has attracted volcanological studies for a long time. Active volcanism occurs along four arc segments, Sunda, Banda, Sangihe and Halmahera, the first three of which were probably once continuous and related to the same subducting Indian Ocean plate.

Cretaceous- recent magmatic arcs/ subduction zones Indonesian Archipelago
Cretaceous- recent magmatic arcs/ subduction zones Indonesian Archipelago (Katili 1974)

Most of the volcanism in the modern Sunda- Banda arc is quite young, starting in the last 3-6 Ma. Up to 15 older volcanic-plutonic arc systems have been recognized in Indonesia, ranging in age from Permian to Recent. Eight of these have associated commercial mineral deposits.

Arc systems may be classified by age and whether the subducting oceanic plates were from the South (Tethys, Indian ocean: most Indonesian arcs), the East (Pacific Ocean- Philippine Sea Plate: Halmahera, Philippines, W Sulawesi) or the North ('Proto-South China Sea Plate': Kalimantan Cretaceous- M Miocene, post-collision New Guinea Late Miocene- Pleistocene)

Suggested Reading: (see more complete listing in Van Gorsel 2009)
Volcanic arcs through time

Katili (1973, 1974, 1989), Carlile & Mitchell (1994), Harris (2006), Hartono (2009), Soeria-Atmadja et al. (1986-2001)

Volcanic rocks chemistry

Westerveld (1954), Hutchison & Jezek (1978), Hutchison (1975, 1981), papers by Bellon, Elburg, Foden, Handley, Hoogewerff, MacPherson, Turner, Van Bergen, Vroon, Whitford, etc.

Modern volcanoes and activity

Stehn (1927), Neumann van Padang (1936, 1983,).Kusumadinata et al. (1979)

I.4. Modern environments, Oceanography

This section contains papers on modern environments and depositional processes in Indonesia. An understanding of this is obviously important to interpret the geological record. Indonesia has been a study area for many types of modern environments, like tropical rainforests, peat swamps, coral reefs, deltas and deep marine environments and oceanography.

A recent topic of great academic interest has been the flow of deep Pacific Ocean water to the Indian Ocean through the Indonesian Archipelago ('Indonesian Throughflow') and its role on climate in the region.

Suggested Reading:
General text books

Ecology of Indonesia series, Gupta (2005)

Oceanographic Expeditions

Reports of expeditions Challenger (Brady 1884, etc.), Siboga (Weber 1902), Snellius (Kuenen 1935, etc.) and Snellius II (Van Hinte et al. 1989)

Physical Oceanography

Wyrtki (1961)

Marine Geology

Molengraaff (1922, 1930), Kuenen (1950), Tomascik et al. (1997)

Indonesian Throughflow

Kuhnt et al. (2004), Gordon (2005 and others)

SE Asia deltas

Sidi et al. (2003), Woodroffe (2005).

I.5. Carbonates, Coral Reefs

The Indonesia archipelago has long been a research area for the study of modern coral reefs. Early papers were by Molengraaff (1930), Kuenen (1933) and Umbgrove (1928-1947), more recent ones include Longman et al. (1993).

Renewed interest in reefal limestone deposits came with the string of oil and gas discoveries in mainly Oligocene-Miocene age reefal buildup reservoirs on Java, Sumatra, Sulawesi and West Papua. An comprehensive overview of the relatively widespread Tertiary limestones is Wilson (2002).

Pre-Tertiary carbonates are relatively rare in Indonesia. Carboniferous- Permian limestones with fusulinid foraminifera are known from Sumatra, W Kalimantan- W Sarawak (Terbat Limestone) and Timor (papers by Fontaine, etc.). The E-M Permian of Sumatra includes the only true reefal Permian limestones in Indonesia (Guguk Bulat, W Sumatra).

Late Triassic shallow water carbonates have been reported from Sumatra (Gafoer & Fontaine 1989), Bangka (De Neve & De Roever 1947), Timor (Vinassa de Regny 1915, Haig et al. 2007), E Sulawesi (Cornee et al. 1994, 1995, Martini et al. 1997), Buru (Gerth 1910, Wanner 1923), Seram (Wanner et al. 1952, Martini et al. 2004), Banda Sea (Sinta Ridge ; Villeneuve et al. 1994) and the Kubor terrane of Papua New Guinea (Skwarko et al. 1976, Kristan-Tollman 1986, 1989).

Late Jurassic- Early Cretaceous shallow marine carbonates are present in Sumatra (Gafoer & Fontaine 1989) and W Kalimantan- W Sarawak (Bau Limestone). Deep water pelagic limestones of these ages are relatively widespread in Eastern Indonesia.

Fractured Upper Triassic limestones are secondary oil reservoirs on Seram Island.

Most of the references on carbonates are found in the chapters on areas in which they occur.

 modern distribution of coral reefs
Detail of Molengraaff (1922) map of modern distribution of coral reefs. In red are fringing reefs, blue are barrier reefs and atolls formed as response to sea level changes, green= barrier reefs/ atolls caused by 'diastrophism'. Uplifted coral reefs are common East of the yellow line.


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