XI. HYDROCARBONS, COAL

This chapter lists about 481 titles on hydrocarbons and coal. However, numerous additional papers on this topic can be found in the chapters of the areas from which they were reported.

Papers reflecting the interest of government and private parties in the economic potential of coal deposits and oil seeps date back to the 1860's.

This chapter of the bibliography contains is subdivided into three topics:

  1. XI.1. Hydrocarbon Occurences/ Assessment
  2. XI.2. Hydrocarbon Source Rocks, Oils and Gases
  3. XI.3. Coal
  4. XI.4. Minerals, Mining

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XI.1. Hydrocarbon Occurrences / Assessment

Prior to the 1970's the oil industry invested much time and money on elaborate surface geology programs and wells geoscience, but kept most of this information in proprietary company files. Virtually all petroleum-related publications appeared in the proceedings of annual conventions of the Indonesian Petroleum Association (IPA; since 1972).

  Early map of W Indonesia oil basins and potential additional prospective areas  
 
Early map of W Indonesia oil basins and potential additional prospective areas  (Molengraaff, 1921)

Early discoveries of oil in Indonesia were made between 1885- 1900 in N and S Sumatra, E Java, Kutai, Tarakan and Seram. A detailed history of oil exploration during this time is presented by Poley (2000). For an overview of the more recent history of fields discovery and plays see Van Gorsel (2009).

SW-NE cross-section across part of the Kampung Minyak oilfield, S Sumatra
SW-NE cross-section across part of the Kampung Minyak oilfield, S Sumatra (Tobler 1906)

XI.2. Hydrocarbon Source Rocks, Oils and Gases

Most of the source for oil and gas in Indonesia, especially West Indonesia, has been tied to Eocene- Miocene lacustrine and coal-bearing formations, deposited in restricted paleoenvironments of rift systems (syn-rift) and, more dispersed, also from deltaic deposits and delta-derived deep water sediments with common plant material.

A number of different source rocks have been recognized in Eastern Indonesia. Miocene marine shales, probably in tectonically restricted basins, are believed to be the oil source in the Salawati Basin of W Papua and the Tomori Basin of E Sulawesi.

Jurassic marine shales are believed to source the oils in the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous reservoirs in the PNG foldbelt. Permian coals were probably the main source for the large gas fields in Bintuni Bay, W Papua.

Upper Triassic bituminous shales were responsible for the tar sands of Buton, the oil seeps on Timor, and the small but commercial oil fields of NE Seram.

The patchy distribution of source facies in Indonesia makes some areas highly prolific, but other large regions non-prospective for commercial hydrocarbons. Understanding of its distribution is therefore probably the most important factor in hydrocarbon exploration.

Suggested Reading Oils, Gas, Source rocks:
History of Discovery

Pertamina (1986), Poley (2000)

Hydrocarbon Occurrences

Molengraaf (1921), Schuppli (1946), Koesoemadinata. (1969), Courteney et al (1989, 1990), Caughey et al. (1994, 1995), Hutchison (1996), Pertamina BKKA (1996) series, Netherwood (2000)

Oil characteristics

Curiale et al. (2005; Kutei), Subroto et al. (2006, Kutei),

Gas geochemistry

Satyana et al. (2007)

Oil- Gas seeps

De Greve (1865), Von Baumhauer (1869), Thompson et al. (1991), MacGregor (1995), Noble et al. (2009)

Source Rocks

Robinson (1987), Katz (1991), Livsey et al. (1992), Williams et al. (1992, 1995), Ten Haven & Schiefelbein (1995), Schiefelbein et al. (1997), papers in Howes & Noble (1997), Peters et al. (1999), papers in Caughey & Howes (1999), Longley (2005), Saller et al. (2006), Davis et al. (2007), Doust & Sumner (2007), Doust & Noble (2008), Noble (2009), Subroto et al. (2009)


XI.3. Coal

Coal is an important commodity for Indonesia and occurs primarily in Tertiary deposits. Not counting small-scale native diggings, coal has been mined since the 1870's. Initially only the higher-grade coals were of interest, i.e. the Eocene-age coals of the Barito basin and Palau Laut (SE Kalimantan) and in the Ombilin basin (W Sumatra), as well as some Miocene coals of the Kutai Basin (E Kalimantan) and the thermally-enhanced Late Miocene coals around andesite intrusions at Bukit Asam (S Sumatra) and the Bengkulu Basin (SW Sumatra).

  W-E cross-section across Pengaron coal mine in Eocene coal, Barito Basin, SE Kalimantan (Hooze, 1893). This government-operated mine was the first and one of the very few underground coal mines in Indonesia.  
 
W-E cross-section across Pengaron coal mine in Eocene coal, Barito Basin, SE Kalimantan (Hooze, 1893). This government-operated mine was the first and one of the very few underground coal mines in Indonesia.

Since the 1980's the thicker, but lower rank M-L Miocene coals (closer to lignites) have become attractive and numerous open pit mines are currently active in the in the Barito and Pasir Basins (SE Kalimantan).

Diagrammatic cross-section across part of, S Sumatra, showing transgressive backstepping of Middle Palembang Fm coals
Diagrammatic cross-section across part of, S Sumatra, showing transgressive backstepping of Middle Palembang Fm coals (Hartmann, 1921)

Non-commercial coal, some with some local-use exploitation, is known from the Eocene of Bayah (SW Java), SW Sulawesi and the Melawai Basin (W Kalimantan) and the Middle Miocene Ngrayong Fm (NE Java).

  Cross-section of Ombilin Basin with Eocene coalbeds, W Sumatra  
 
Cross-section of Ombilin Basin with Eocene coalbeds, W Sumatra (Verbeek, 1883)

No commercial coal deposits are known from Eastern Indonesia. Thin Miocene- Pliocene coals are present in the North New Guinea, Salawati and Bintuni basins, the latter in the appropriately named 'Steenkool Formation'.

Mesozoic coals are rare in Indonesia. Thin M Jurassic coals are present in Bintuni Basin wells, West Papua.

Permian coals are important economically in E Australia (Bowen Basin, etc.). In Indonesia relatively thin Permian coals are found in W Papua (outcrops and wells in the Birds Head and W part of the Central Range) and S Sumatra (W Jambi Basin Mengkarang Fm), but these appear to be of limited commercial value.

Suggested Reading:
Coal Occurrences

Hooze (1892), Mulhadiono et al. (1978), Koesoemadinata (1978, 2000), Prijono (1989), Soehandojo (1989), Friedrich et al. (1995, 1999),  Cook, A.C. & B. Daulay (2000)

Kutei Basin

Hooze (1887, 1888), Land and Jones (1987), Nas (1994), Situmorang et al. (2006), Suwarna & Hermanto (2007)

SE Kalimantan

Schwaner (1857), Verbeek (1875), Hooze (1888, 1893), Gollner (1924), Sigit (1962, 1963), Moore & Ferm (1992), Friedrich et al. (1996), Milligan et al. (1996), Satyana et al. (2000),

S Sumatra

Everwijn (1860, 1873), Hirschi (1916), Tromp (1919), Mannhardt (1921), Ziegler (1921), Tobler (1922), Mukherjee  (1935), Matasak & Kendarsi (1980), Von Schwartzenberg (1989), Subiyanto & Panggabean (2004), Amijaya (2005), Amijaya & Littke (2005, 2006), Anonymous (1919), Susilawati & Ward (2006), Sosrowidjojo & Saghafi (2009), Mazumder et al. (2010)

W Sumatra (Bengkulu)

Everwijn (1876), Van Dijk (1860), Fennema (1885), Philippi (1918), Maryanto (2001, 2002), Heryanto & Suyoko (2007)

C Sumatra (Ombilin)

Verbeek (1875), Wally (1939), Whateley & Jordan (1989)


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