This chapter of the bibliography contains 434 pages with approximately 3950 papers. It should be noted that this is an 'expanded version'. It contain the references in Chapter X of the Bibliography master list, as well as most of the paleontology/biostratigraphy papers from the areas chapters in both Indonesia and the surrounding areas.The present list is organized in nine chapters:

  1. X.1. General Papers
  2. X.2. Quaternary-Recent faunas- microfloras and distribution
  3. X.3. Tertiary
  4. X.4. Cretaceous
  5. X.5. Jurassic
  6. X.6. Triassic
  7. X.7. Permian- Carboniferous
  8. X.8. Ordovician- Devonian
  9. X.9. Quaternary Hominids, Mammals

Download pdf - Chapter X. PALEONTOLOGY (4.43 MB)

X.1., X.2. Quaternary, General

This section mainly contains papers on the taxonomy of modern microfaunas and microfloras and their distribution in Recent sediments of SE Asia. An understanding of modern biofacies distributions is obviously significant for the interpretation of depositional environments in the geological rock record.

The next three chapters deal with fossil faunas and floras, organized by age. Biostratigraphy is the main tool for age determinations of sedimentary rocks, and good age control is obviously critical for all geology interpretation. In addition, fossil assemblages provide information on depositional environments and paleoclimate. Paleobiogeographic patterns may provide constraints on the reconstruction of the SE Asia mosaic of tectonic blocks (one of the best examples of this is Lunt, 2003).

X.3. Tertiary

A vast amount of literature has been published on Indonesian Tertiary faunas. The principal tools for biostratigraphic subdivision of Tertiary sediments in Indonesia are planktonic foraminifera and calcareous nannofossils in open marine deposits, complex larger foraminifera in shallow marine carbonates and palynology in non-marine and marginal marine deposits.

The basics of the Eocene- Recent larger foraminifera zonation, also called the 'East Indies Letter Classification', were developed in the 1920's. Ranges of the key genera on which this is based are shown in the figure below. More detailed and better calibrated charts like this can be found in the literature but can not be shown here due copyright restrictions.



Suggested Reading Tertiary: (see more detailed list in Van Gorsel 2009, Table 19)

Van Gorsel (1988)

Larger foraminifera

Verbeek (1871-1891), Douville (1905-1924), Rutten (1911-1926), Van der Vlerk (1922-1973), Tan Sin Hok (1930-1940), , Adams (1965- 1992), Clarke & Blow (1969), Chaproniere (1975- 1994), Haak & Postuma (1975), Ho Kiam Fui (1976), Boudagher-Fadel (1997-2008), Lunt & Allan (2004), Renema  (2002, 2007)

Planktonic foraminifera

Bolli (1966), Blow (1969, 1979), Kadar (1972- 2008)

Smaller benthic foraminifera

LeRoy (1939-1944), Boomgaart (1949), Billmann & Witoelar (1974), Belford (1966), Van Marle (1988-1991) Kadar (1992)


Martin (1880- 1921), Oostingh (1933-1941)


Gerth (1923- 1933)


Germeraad et al (1968), Morley (1977- 2000)

X.4., X.5. Cretaceous - Jurassic

Relatively little has been published on Cretaceous and Jurassic faunas of Indonesia, and references to these are mainly found under the areas in which they occur.

The Jurassic in East Indonesia (Misool, Sula, W Papua, etc.) appears to be dominated by open marine facies. Relatively many paleontological papers on ammonites, belemnites, brachiopods, bivalve molluscs, etc., were published, most of them in the early 1900's.

Deep marine Late Jurassic pelagic limestone facies with abundant radiolarians and calcispheres are known from Buton, E Sulawesi, Timor, Seram and Misool (Wanner 1940). In these areas the Jurassic is overlain by relatively thin Cretaceous pelagic limestones, with common Globotruncana in the upper parts.

In West Indonesia, Jurassic shallow marine carbonate facies are more common, exemplified by papers on corals, foraminifera, etc., from N and SW Sumatra (summarized in Fontaine & Gafoer 1989) and the Bau limestone of the W Sarawak- W Kalimantan border area (Wolfenden 1965, Beauvais & Fontaine 1990)

Mid-Cretaceous shallow marine limestones with Orbitolina and rudists have been known from numerous localities across Kalimantan and W Sarawak since the late 1800's (Martin 1888, 1889), and also from S Sumatra (Lampung and Gumai Mts.; Zwierzycki 1931, Musper 1934, Yabe 1946) and the Lok Ulo accretionary complex of C Java (Verbeek 1891). These are generally interpreted as low-latitude Tethyan forms, and are not known from Australia- New Guinea.

Today's most powerful biostratigraphic tool in this time interval is probably dinoflagellates. It is widely used in Australia NW Australia and Papua New Guinea wells, but not much work has been done, or published, on this in Indonesia.

Suggested Reading Jurassic- Cretaceous: (see also lists in Van Gorsel 2009)

X.6., X.7., X.8. Triassic - Paleozoic

A fair body of literature exists on Paleozoic faunas of Indonesia, but much of it is in old and hard to find papers, and not in English or Indonesian.

Most are from the Permian of Timor and adjacent islands Roti and Leti, but also from W Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi and West Papua. Triassic rocks and faunas have been described from Timor- Roti, Sumatra, W Kalimantan, E Sulawesi, Buton, Buru, Seram, Ambon, Misool, etc. References to these are mainly found under the areas in which they occur.

The oldest fossils from Indonesia are Ordovician-Silurian nautiloids, conodonts and graptolites from West Papua. The oldest fossils from Western Indonesia are a Devonian Heliolites coral and a stromatoporoid from a locality in C Kalimantan (Rutten 1940, 1947, Sugiaman & Andria 1999).

A Late Devonian brachiopod and a Permian ammonite were reported from the Kalosi region of C Sulawesi by Brouwer (1919), but their localities were never confirmed. They were believed to probably come from a local pharmacy by Von Koeningswald (1933).

Permian deposits are more widespread, including W Papua (Visser & Hermes 1962), Sumatra (Fontaine & Gafoer 1989), W Kalimantan-Sarawak (Terbat Lst; Fontaine 1990, Vachard 1990) and Timor (numerous papers). The classic, rich marine Permian faunas from Timor have been the subject of numerous papers.

The E-M Permian of W Sumatra contains reefal and fusulinid limestones and the famous 'Jambi Flora' of SW Sumatra, all indicating a 'Cathaysian' equatorial climate, and showing that these parts of Sumatra were not part of the much colder Gondwana continent at that time.

Suggested Reading Paleozoic- Triassic: (see also lists in Van Gorsel 2009)
Permian faunas

Fontaine (1986, 1990, 2002, and others), Charlton et al. (2002; Timor), Ueno 2003, 2006), papers by Wanner, Broili, Krumbeck, Gerth, Archbold, Shi, etc.

Permian floras

Posthumus (1927),Jongmans & Gothan 1935, Li & Wu (1994), Van Waveren et al. (2007), Playford & Rigby (2008)

Triassic General

Wanner (1907, 1931), Zwierzycki (1925), Hasibuan (2008), Charlton et al. (2009; Timor)

Triassic Limestone faunas

Welter (1914, 1915), Vachard & Fontaine (1988), Martini et al. (2000), Haig et al. (2007), Sashida et al. (1999), etc.

X.9. Hominids, Quaternary Mammals

Indonesia has long been an area of great interest for the study of the Late Pliocene- Pleistocene vertebrate faunas, including hominids, and their evolution and dispersal from mainland Asia across the islands of Java and farther East. Only a selection of papers (280) from this large field of research is included in this bibliography.

Land mammals started to appear on Java, Sulawesi and Flores relatively late in geologic history, at around 2.5 Ma, as these areas emerged to form significant land areas during Plio- Pleistocene tectonic uplift processes and volcanism.

Older mammal fossils are extremely rare in Indonesia, mainly a reflection of the rarity of pre-Pleistocene terrestrial deposits in the archipelago. Eocene acanthocerids (Hippopotamus family), common in Asia at that time, were reported from West Kalimantan and from Timor. The latter find is another indication that much of Timor Island was attached to Sundaland in Eocene time.

Present-day distributions of faunas and floras still reflect plate tectonic past history. Well-known biogeographic boundaries like the Wallace Line (1869), separating balanced ‘Asian’ Sundaland faunas from unbalanced island faunas on Sulawesi, Flores and islands farther East, and Lydekkers Line, separating the Australian faunas of Australia and New Guinea in the SE from the impoverished island faunas to its West.

The history of Late Pliocene- Recent terrestrial vertebrate evolution and dispersal is best documented on Java, where there is a succession of faunas reflecting island conditions in the Late Pliocene- Early Pleistocene, followed by the arrivals of a more diverse Asian mammal population (including Homo erectus) in the Middle Pleistocene around 1 Ma. Pleistocene vertebrate faunas were from SW Sulawesi, discovered relatively recently, have been interpreted as impoverished island faunas of Asian origin.

Early island populations are typically composed of a limited number of migrant species of Asian origin that are relatively good swimmers (elephants, hippos, deer; not humans or other predators). In the absence of carnivorous predators, mammal species commonly developed into either dwarfed species (pygmy Stegodon elephants) or giants (giant tortoises, rats, Komodo lizards, etc.) in the Pleistocene of, Timor, SW Sulawesi and Sumba. Similar forms from East Java and West Java suggest these parts of Java were also islands in the Early Pleistocene.

The first fossil evidence for human evolution and migration came with the discovery of ‘Java Man’ (Pithecanthropus erectus; now called Homo erectus) at Trinil by Dubois in 1891. Finding this rare material was a remarkable story of perseverance and luck. Additional Homo erectus fragments were reported in the 1930’s and later.

Younger, but still primitive Upper Pleistocene hominid fossils were found in a Solo River terrace at Ngandong in East Java, named Homo soloensis (‘Solo Man’) and represent another much-debated group of hominids transitional between H. erectus and H. sapiens. Latest age dating of these skulls is in the 40-70 ka range.

The incomplete fossil record, the often poorly documented origins of much of the fossil hominid material collected by local farmers and inaccuracies of various radiometric dating methods  still leaves much room for debate on timing of arrivals and evolution of hominids in the region. The most widely accepted interpretation of Homo erectus history has been an evolutionary transition from Homo habilis in E Africa around 1.8-1.6 Ma and a migration into SE Asia/ Java around 0.9-1.0 Ma. Swisher et al. (1994) reported a radiometric age of 1.81 Ma for a Homo erectus skull from Mojokerto, East Java, the oldest date for any H. erectus, and suggested it may have originated in Asia instead of Africa. However, their dating is on tuff samples that may not be from the same horizon as the H. erectus skull (De Vos and Sondaar 1994). Recent Ar/Ar dating of pumice layers at Sangiran dome yielded an age range of the Homo erectus-bearing interval between 1.51- 1.01 Ma.

Homo erectus probably reached the island of Flores by 0.8 Ma, as evidenced by well-dated stone tools. Flores is also the site of the latest new discovery of cave-dwelling Homo erectus-like dwarf population of hominids of Late Pleistocene age (95-13 ka). It was named Homo floresiensis, adults are only one meter tall, and it overlaps in time with ‘Solo Man’ and with modern man, Homo sapiens. Jacob et al. (2006) and others have argued that these Flores hominids should be regarded as a dwarf population of Homo sapiens.

Suggested Reading:
Pleistocene mammals

Von Koenigswald (1933-1940), Hooijer (1952-1957), Sartono (1969-1979), Audley Charles and Hooijer 1973, De Vos et al. (1982, 2007), De Vos (1983-1996), Sondaar (1984), Van den Bergh et al. (1996, 2001), Aziz (2000), Zaim (2002)

Pleistocene mammals SW Sulawesi

Van Heekeren (1958), Hooijer (1950), Sartono (1979), Aziz (1990), Van den Bergh (1999)

Eocene mammals

Stromer, 1931, Ducroq, 1996;

Hominids Java

Dubois (1891), Oppenoorth (1932), Von Koenigswald (1936, 1938,1940), Sartono (1961-1991), Jacob (1973-1981), De Vos and Sondaar (1994), Suminto et al. (1996), Rightmire (1993), Huffman et al. (1999, 2006), Van den Bergh et al (2001), Larick et al. (2001, 2004), Yokoyama et al. (2008)

Hominids Flores

Van den Bergh et al. (1996), Morwood et al. (1998, 2004, 2005), Brown et al. (2004)

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